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This was the final battle of Caesar's civil war against the leaders of the Optimates. With the military victory and the deaths of Titus Labienus and Gnaeus Pompeius eldest son of Pompey , Caesar was politically able to return in triumph to Rome, and then govern as the elected Roman dictator. The exact location of Munda has long been a matter of debate.

The town of Alcúdia in Majorca - The Roman ruins of Pollentia

Some Spanish historians asserted that Munda was the Roman name for modern-day Ronda, where the battle of Munda may have been fought. Other early researchers localized the battle in various other places, e. Other experts have asserted that Munda was fought just outside Osuna, in the province of Seville. While Cesear was still campaigning in Spain, the Senate began bestowing honours on him.

Great games and celebrations were held in April to honour Caesar's victory at Munda. Caesar returned to Italy in September 45 BC. Caesar was named Dictator, although he was murdered soon after, and later the Roman Empire was founded. Seneca the elder was born in Cordubu in BC The name was taken from the River Baetis now Guadalquivir provinces. This region corresponded to roughly what is present day Andalucia.

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Corduba was the capital. Things started to change with the spread of Christianity from the first to the forth century. Paul had identified Spain as a target for conversion in his Episple to the Romans.


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  7. He toured Spain in AD The Emperor Diocletian instituted the last ruthless persecution in AD As Spain became a Christian country, the Spanish language, perhaps the closest modern tongue to Latin, began to take its current shape. Ronda la Vieja, Old Ronda is 20km north of modern Ronda has an impresive Theatre and unexcavated city. More importantly, Hispania was for years part of a cosmopolitan world empire bound together by law, language, and the Roman road.

    But the impact of Hispania in the newcomers was also big. Caesar wrote on the Civil Wars that the soldiers from the Second Legion had become Hispanicized and regarded themselves as hispanici. Some of the peninsula's population were admitted into the Roman aristocratic class and they participated in governing Hispania and the Roman empire, although there was a native aristocracy class who ruled each local tribe. The latifundia sing. The peninsula's economy expanded under Roman tutelage. Hispania served as a granary and a major source of metals for the Roman market, and its harbors exported gold , tin , silver , lead , wool , wheat , olive oil , wine , fish , and garum.

    Agricultural production increased with the introduction of irrigation projects, some of which remain in use today.

    The Romanized Iberian populations and the Iberian-born descendants of Roman soldiers and colonists had all achieved the status of full Roman citizenship by the end of the 1st century. The emperors Trajan r. The Iberian denarii, also called argentum oscense by Roman soldiers, circulated until the 1st century BC, after which it was replaced by Roman coins. The long wars of conquest lasted two centuries, and only by the time of Augustus did Rome managed to control Hispania Ulterior. Hispania was divided into three provinces in the 1st century BC. In the 4th century, Latinius Pacatus Drepanius , a Gallic rhetorician, dedicated part of his work to the depiction of the geography, climate and inhabitants of the peninsula, writing:.

    This Hispania produces tough soldiers, very skilled captains, prolific speakers, luminous bards. It is a mother of judges and princes; it has given Trajan , Hadrian , and Theodosius to the Empire.

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    With time, the name Hispania was used to describe the collective names of the Iberian Peninsula kingdoms of the Middle Ages, which came to designate all of the Iberian Peninsula plus the Balearic Islands. During the first stages of Romanization, the peninsula was divided in two by the Romans for administrative purposes. The closest one to Rome was called Citerior and the more remote one Ulterior.

    The frontier between both was a sinuous line which ran from Cartago Nova now Cartagena to the Cantabrian Sea. Hispania Citerior comprised the eastern part of former Castilla la Vieja, and what are now Aragon , Valencia , Catalonia , and a major part of former Castilla la Nueva. The emperor Augustus in that same year returned to make a new division leaving the provinces as follows:. By the 3rd century the emperor Caracalla made a new division which lasted only a short time.

    In the year the unified province Tarraconensis or Hispania Citerior was re-established. In the 3rd century, under the Soldier Emperors, Hispania Nova the northwestern corner of Spain was split off from Tarraconensis, as a small province but the home of the only permanent legion is Hispania, Legio VII Gemina. After Diocletian's Tetrarchy reform in AD , the new Diocese of Hispania became one of the four dioceses —governed by a vicarius —of the praetorian prefecture of Gaul also comprising the provinces of Gaul , Germania and Britannia , after the abolition of the imperial Tetrarchs under the Western Emperor in Rome itself, later Ravenna.

    Christianity was introduced into Hispania in the 1st century and it became popular in the cities in the 2nd century. Little headway was made in the countryside, however, until the late 4th century, by which time Christianity was the official religion of the Roman Empire. Some heretical sects emerged in Hispania, most notably Priscillianism , but overall the local bishops remained subordinate to the Pope.

    Bishops who had official civil as well as ecclesiastical status in the late empire continued to exercise their authority to maintain order when civil governments broke down there in the 5th century. The Council of Bishops became an important instrument of stability during the ascendancy of the Visigoths. The last vestiges of Roman rule ended in After three years of depredation and wandering about northern and western Gaul the Germanic Buri , Suevi and Vandals , together with the Sarmatian Alans moved into Iberia in September or October at the request of Gerontius a Roman usurper.

    Thus began the history of the end of Roman Spain which came in The Suevi established a kingdom in Gallaecia in what is today modern Galicia and northern Portugal. The Alans' allies, the Hasdingi Vandals, also established a kingdom in another part of Gallaecia. In an effort to retrieve the region the western Roman emperor, Honorius r. They all but wiped out the Silingi and Alans.

    The remnant joined the Asding Vandals who had settled first in the northwest with the Sueves but south to Baetica. It is a mystery why the Visigoths were recalled by patrician Constantius who in married Honorius' sister who had been married briefly to the Visigothic king Ataulf. The Visigoths, the remnants of the two tribes who joined them and the Sueves were confined to a small area in the northwest of the peninsula.

    The Vandals and Alans crossed over to North Africa in , an event which is considered to have been decisive in hastening the decline of the Western Empire. After the departure of the Vandals only the Sueves remained in a northwest corner of the peninsula. Rome made attempts to restore control in and Success was temporary. After the death of emperor Majorian in Roman authority collapsed except in Tarraconensis the northeastern quadrant of the peninsular.

    The Visigoths, a Germanic people , whose kingdom was located in southwest Gaul, took the province when they occupied Tarragona in They also confined the Sueves who had ruled most of the region to Galicia and northern Portugal. In the Visigoths established Toledo as the capital of their kingdom.

    Successive Visigothic kings ruled Hispania as patricians who held imperial commissions to govern in the name of the Roman emperor. In the Visigoths conquered the Suebic Kingdom of Galicia , and thus controlled almost all of Hispania. A century later, taking advantage of a struggle for the throne between the Visigothic kings Agila and Athanagild , the eastern emperor Justinian I sent an army under the command of Liberius to take back the peninsula from the Visigoths.

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    This short-lived reconquest recovered only a small strip of land along the Mediterranean coast roughly corresponding to the ancient province of Baetica , known as Spania. Under the Visigoths, culture was not as highly developed as it had been under Roman rule, when a goal of higher education had been to prepare gentlemen to take their places in municipal and imperial administration. With the collapse of the imperial administrative super-structure above the provincial level which was practically moribund the task of maintaining formal education and government shifted to the Church from the old ruling class of educated aristocrats and gentry.

    The clergy, for the most part, emerged as the qualified personnel to manage higher administration in concert with local powerful 'notables who gradually displaced the old town councils. As elsewhere in early medieval Europe, the church in Hispania stood as society's most cohesive institution. The Visigoths are also responsible for the introduction of mainstream Christianity to the Iberian peninsula; the earliest representation of Christ in Spanish religious art can be found in a Visigothic hermitage, Santa Maria de Lara.

    It also embodied the continuity of Roman order.

    Romans continued to run the civil administration and Latin continued to be the language of government and of commerce on behalf of the Visigoths. Religion was the most persistent source of friction between the Roman Catholic Romans and their Arian Visigothic overlords, whom the former considered heretical. At times this tension invited open rebellion, and restive factions within the Visigothic aristocracy exploited it to weaken the monarchy.

    In , Recared , a Visigothic ruler, renounced his Arianism before the Council of Bishops at Toledo and accepted Catholicism , thus assuring an alliance between the Visigothic monarchy and the Romans. This alliance would not mark the last time in the history of the peninsula that political unity would be sought through religious unity. Court ceremonials — from Constantinople — that proclaimed the imperial sovereignty and unity of the Visigothic state were introduced at Toledo.

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